Cardiac surgery in patients with cerebrovascular disease

Authors: Fujita T, Kobayashi J.

Cerebral event is the 2nd leading cause of mortality and morbidity after cardiac surgery. Therefore, management of cerebrovascular disease is essential to improve the outcome. We reviewed the literatures and cases in our institute to present the current strategy for these patients. Firstly, for the patients in high risk of stroke, if patients undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), off-pump CABG (OPCAB) with aorta non-touch technique is recommended. We experienced no intraoperative stroke in our recent consecutive 1,000 cases. If patients require cardiopulmonary bypass, keeping blood pressure high during bypass may prevent local hypoperfusion in brain. Second, for the patients having carotid artery disease, the team approach with neurologists is essential to determine to precede either of cardiac surgery or carotid endoarterectomy. Because preceding carotid endoarterectomy gives the best result to prevent stroke, these patients had better have carotid endoarterectomy first, unless there is indication of urgent cardiac surgery. Third, for the patients with active endocarditis, early indication of surgery is recently recommended, unless patients have intracranial hemorrhage. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed more than 60% of patients have stroke regardless of size, therefore, team approach with neurologists is important to decide the timing of the surgery. Team approach and correct selection of procedural technique are important to prevent cerebrovascular events during cardiac surgery.

(Article in Japanese) Full text and source: Pieronline

Kyobu Geka. 2012 Aug;65(8):615-20.